The untapped potential associated with the emerging markets is not just about large populations and industrialisation buoying the macroeconomy to new heights. Realising the full potential of the emerging markets will also involve pricing new therapies in a way that reflects the economic development of the individual. The challenge here is that there are many individuals with almost as many unique economic statuses defining their willingness and ability to pay. Individual economic assessments on a case-by-case basis are simply not feasible on a grand scale in countries with hundreds of millions of people. Reflecting this, traditional patient assistance programmes (PAPs) are evolving to more simplified, categorical models where large groups of patients can receive discounts through free product. Still, even these models are not commercially sustainable, and the days of country-wide product donation are numbered. Incomebased pricing is eventually where the industry will need to migrate, but significant challenges remain.